Scotland Defending the Nation: Mapping the Military Landscape. By Carolyn Anderson and Christopher Fleet. Published in association with the National Library of Scotland by Birlinn Ltd. West Newington House, 10 Newington Road, Edinburgh, EH9 1QS. www.birlinn.co.uk. £30.00. US Distributor: Casemate Publishers 1950 Lawrence Road, Havertown PA 19083. www.casematepublishers.com. $44.95. 2018. 244 pp. Color Illustrations, index. Hardcover.
Warfare, attack and defense, has shaped Scotland’s history over the last six centuries. From the fifteenth to the seventeenth century, a prevailing ideology of English overlordship of Scotland created: real threats and invasions through the Wars of the Rough Wooing in the 1540s; persistent violence on the debatable Scottish borderlands; and the Jacobite uprisings, which in 1745 came close to toppling the British throne. These events led to a huge militarization of Scotland with new defenses, forts and roads, and armies clashing in battle. Some of these defenses were put to new uses by the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, to counter the very real worries over French invasion, especially on the east coast. By the twentieth century, defenses and enemy threats had shifted focus again, with German seaborne and airborne attacks, particularly during the Second World War. This was followed by new fears over Russian military predominance.
The book uses six centuries of Scottish military mapping to tell this story. It explains military maps produced for different purposes: fortification plans, reconnaissance mapping, battle plans, military roads and route ways, tactical maps, enemy maps showing targets, as well as plans showing the construction of defenses. Many of the military engineers were from overseas, especially the early ones who drafted maps, and the author makes comparisons with early European maps and structures. The book does address, with individual chapters, the big names in Scottish military mapping and their impact – George Wade and William Roy. All these engineers and map makers, European and Scotsmen alike, left a legacy in maps and fortifications. Sometimes the paper military landscape is different from reality, showing what was proposed rather than implemented. The maps themselves, all in color, are striking and attractive, selected for the stories they tell.
The main text tells the story of the history of military mapping in Scotland. However, the maps that appear on almost every page have extensive detailed captions which often tell their own story. Thus, researchers will not only get the big picture by reading the full text, but also through specific information about a period or event from a particular map
For those who want to learn more, the book includes an extensive annotated guide to sources and further reading, arranged by the seven chapters in the book. It is an excellent addition, with very limited overlap, to the other two books in the series – Scotland: Mapping the Nation and Scotland: Mapping the Islands – reviewed here.
Tracing Your Insolvent Ancestors: A Guide for Family & Local
Historians. By Paul Blake. Published by Pen & Sword Family History,
47 Church Street, Barnsley, South Yorkshire S70 2AS, UK www.pen-and-sword.co.uk. £14.99. US Distributor: Casemate
Publishers 1950 Lawrence Road, Havertown PA 19083. www.casemateipm.com. $29.95. 2019. 223 pp.
This is not a
book for the new researcher or beginner. This is an excellent, very detailed
deep dive into a voluminous set of records about which little has been written.
Debtors’ prisons are infamous – Charles Dickens father was in one, and many of
his characters spent time there. Many people were often incarcerated following
misfortune or mismanagement rather than criminal intent. The time spent there
varied from a few days to years and stories this far back may not have survived
within the family.
In reading this
detailed book I wondered how one would even know the ancestor was a debtor. The
clue came on page 193 where Mr. Blake suggests that “Reports in local or
national newspapers can often be the first indication of a debtor or bankrupt
ancestor, which can lead to surviving official records”
introduces his subject by highlighting the difference between insolvent debt
and bankruptcy, the latter prior to 1842 being limited to traders owing more
than £100, with the emphasis on traders. This distinction eliminated most
skilled craftsmen and farmers. The
Stature of Merchants in 1283 made it possible for creditors to register major
debts and use imprisonment to enforce them. In 1351 the use of immediate
imprisonment was extended to civil debt in general. The ability to imprison
someone for debt did not end until 1869. Thus, there are over 500 years of
records for debtors.
some background on insolvent debtors, the book addresses the machinery of
justice and the many courts in which debtors can be found, followed by a
chapter on charities and the Court for Relief of Insolvent Debtors. The next
five chapters examine different aspects for insolvent debtors: courts and court
records; imprisonment; common law, central prisons and their records; London
courts and their records; London prisons and their records. The final three
chapters examine: county debtors, i.e. those outside London; bankruptcy; and
newspapers. Throughout there are mini case studies, with examples of what the
records look like, and how to use the finding aids.
concludes with a surprising long list of Acts of Parliament in chronological
order concerning debtors, imprisonment, sanctuary and bankruptcy in England
from 1275 to 1901, plus a list of Regnal years.
If you have found
an ancestor, probably in a newspaper, who is identified as an insolvent debtor
or bankrupt then this is the book to which you must turn. This is the only book
available that guides the reader step-by-step through these voluminous sets of
records to find the details of misfortune that family historians so love to
find. This book is highly recommended.
Scotland Mapping the Islands.
By Christopher Fleet, Margaret Wilkes and Charles W.J. Withers. Published in
association with the National Library of Scotland by Birlinn Ltd. West
Newington House, 10 Newington Road, Edinburgh, EH9 1QS. www.birlinn.co.uk.
£30.00. US Distributor: CasemateIPM 1950 Lawrence Road, Havertown PA 19083. www.casemateipm.com.
$42.99. 2016. 244 pp. Illustrations, index. Hardcover.
fascinate us. This book looks at the history and geography behind the many maps
of Scotland’s islands. The focus is on understanding the history and geography
of the islands but also in showing how that history and geography has been
realized in and produced through art, the artifice, and the authority of maps.
This is the first book to take the maps of Scotland’s islands as its central
modern expectation is that maps accurately depict size, shape and
relationships. Especially with the case of islands surrounded by water, researchers
need to know where the islands are in relationship to one another, how big they
are, and what their coasts look like.
That information has not always been available on the maps of islands of
Scotland. Some islands are even transient, appearing twice a day depending upon
the tide. For the map makers and their users distinguishing sea from land, one
island from another, what is an island and what is not is vital.
book is not an A-Z gazetteer of islands and island maps, from Arran and Barra
to Zetland, showing maps of each. Rather the book has a narrative focus that is
thematic, following a broadly chronological order. Each chapter addresses the
ways in which an island’s history and geography have been captured in maps over
time. The chapters reflect the sequence in which islands have not only appeared
but also have come to exert their force and ‘pull.’ The sequencing of chapters
reflects the processes by which the islands were peopled, then named, then
navigated to and from (or avoided as hazards), defended, improved, exploited,
pictured and escaped from or to.
book has lavish color illustrations of numerous maps, from all time periods, many
as two-page spreads. All supplement the detailed text of the chapter. At a
minimum the detailed captions provide the source of the maps. More often the
caption draws reader attention to features on the map – e.g. the island being
in the wrong location, the wrong shape, the wrong size, the fact it is missing,
who copied the map from whom, and how the map is different from its
predecessors. These captions thus extend
the story of the main text and embellish the history ‘behind’ the maps in question.
book can be read in the conventional fashion, from front to back, like I did,
with each chapter building upon its predecessors. Alternatively, using the
index, one can look at a particular island, or group, and see how the narrative
of that place changed across time, and how it evolved through the different
types of maps over time.
Highlands and islands are the center of the use of Gaelic in Scotland and its
use is supported by governmental acts and policies. In this book many of the
place names are written in both English and Gaelic, so readers will see
examples within the text like: Western Isles / Na h-Eileanan an Iar; Lewis /
Leòdhas. This is appropriate but makes the text in places harder to read.
knowledgeable authors present the rich and diverse story of Scottish islands
from the earliest maps to the most up-to-date digital mapping in engaging and
imaginative ways. This book is an informative delight to read and view. It
makes a great companion volume to Scotland: Mapping the Nation from the
Tracing Your Church of England Ancestors: A Guide for Family & Local Historians. By Stuart A. Raymond. Published by Pen & Sword Family History, 47 Church Street, Barnsley, South Yorkshire S70 2AS, UK www.pen-and-sword.co.uk. £14.99. US Distributor: CasemateIPM 1950 Lawrence Road, Havertown PA 19083. www.casemateipm.com. $29.95. 2017. 232 pp. Illustrations, index. Softcover.
the late seventeenth century, every man and woman in England was a member of
the Church of England. Legally, that continued to be the case for several
centuries, although in practice Non-Conformists and Roman Catholics denied
their membership. Even today Anglican priests recognize they have an obligation
to serve everyone within their parish. Thus, everyone, at least into the
nineteenth century and earlier, can claim Anglican ancestors.
Church of England is the established church of England and Wales, plus Ireland,
but not Scotland. The records of Ireland and Scotland are not included here. This
book focusses on the records created within the dioceses and parishes of
England and Wales, although other records are mentioned when appropriate.
first section in the book provides context of the institution. It provides a
brief outline of the history of Anglicanism; describes the structure of the
church, how clergy and laity operate within it, and why the records that we use
were created. There is also a chapter on the preliminaries of research
regarding the use of record offices, books, libraries and the internet. This is
a good introduction to English research methods and sources.
following two chapters examine what researchers are most commonly seeking, that
is references to the baptism, marriage and burial of their ancestors. The first looks in detail at the registers
themselves, while the second looks at alternative records for the same
information such as bishops’ transcripts, banns registers, marriage licence
[MELISSA – correct English Spelling for record] records, monumental
inscriptions, etc. The next two chapters examine additional records produced by
the parish and diocese, such as: churchwarden accounts; vestry minutes; seating
plans; tithe records; confirmation registers; visitation records; diocesan
courts; records of loyalty; and more, introducing lots of lessor known or
next three chapters take a more in-depth look at specific topics. The church
ran the English probate system until 1858, which is explained, along with
guidance on how to find what is needed. This is followed by a discussion of Anglican
charities, missions and religious orders. Then, for those with Anglican clergy
in the family, there is a good chapter on the numerous sources that make
tracing these individuals easier than tracing lay family members.
books final chapter looks at additional sources that might provide clues or
information about the clergy or church members, such as: Charles Booth’s
interviews; diaries; Compton Census; 1851 ecclesiastical census; Glynne’s
church notes; newspapers; Queen Anne churches; school records; and more.
bibliographic and web link references are included throughout the book, to take
the researcher to more in-depth resources. Multiple indexes arranged by place,
name and subject also simplify the location of material. This book is up to Mr.
Raymond’s usual high standards of a practical, comprehensive, clearly written
research guide. It is highly recommended.
to Read Scottish Buildings.
By Daniel MacCannell. Published by Birlinn Ltd., West Newington House, 10
Newington Road, Edinburgh EH9 1QS, UK. www.birlinnco.uk. £9.99. US
Distributor: CasemateIPM 1950 Lawrence Road, Havertown PA 19083. www.casemateipm.com.
$14.99. 2015, reprinted with corrections 2017. 224 pp. Illustrations, index.
is a practical book, sized to fit in one’s pocket or purse, unlike many books
on architecture. I wish I’d had it with me on my recent trip to Scotland when I
was taking photographs of many buildings because I would have been able to take
better photographs of many of the features mentioned in the book. In the
meantime, I can use the book to more accurately analyze the photographs I have.
This is where researchers will benefit when examining family photographs that
is not a book about the famous buildings: cathedrals, palaces or royal castles,
which are only mentioned in passing. It is a guide to the curious, attractive,
sometimes even beautiful old Scottish buildings for which there are no plaques,
no websites, no costumed guides or colorful pamphlets or ‘ancient monument’
designations. The book “is intended to provide travelers and residents with an
impartial, brief, clearly illustrated guide that allows them to place Scottish
buildings and groups of buildings with regard to their ages, styles, influences
and functions, as well as the messages that their builders, owners and
occupants intended to convey” (p.9). In this it succeeds. It will help you
determine if you are looking at an outstanding, typical or inferior example of
a building feature, a style, or a period building. The book is designed to
teach a deductive approach that can be applied equally well to Scottish
buildings in any setting, in any region, or originating in any time period. The author acknowledges that
there may be regional variations, and some are touched upon, but the overall
principles apply everywhere.
MacCannell divides Scottish architecture into six style periods, which are
explained and illustrated. The six style periods are: Style before 1540 –
Middle Ages into the Renaissance; Style 1540-1660 – Baronial glory days and the
overthrow of the church; Style 1660-1750 – de-fortification, symmetry and the
emergence of architecture as a profession; Style 1750-1840 – Pan British
Neo-Classical style consolidated, amid increasing scale and the first stirrings
of ‘retro’; Style 1840-1920 – ‘retro’, diversity, mechanization and
unparalleled prosperity; Style after 1920 – ‘retro’ perfected, Art Deco,
Brutalism and green architecture.
following section examines the cross-period issues that may create problems for
the observer, but may, with some knowledge and understanding, aid in narrowing
down dates, such as: dated stones; arms; marks of quality that transcend
periods; symmetry and the notion of ‘Georgian style’; ownership; and how to
read a house built in multiple periods.
next section looks at the individual external features of a building starting
at the roof, and working down looking at windows, walls, doors and all their
multiple variations. You will understand what to look for and how to
distinguish between original and ‘retro’ versions of features after reading
book concludes with a table, designed for quick onsite estimation of time
period. It looks at the observable features and describes what to look for in
each period, knowing that some features go across multiple styles. The style
periods go across the table and the features described like the buildings start
at the top and work down. The table is not a summary of the prior section but
contains significant information not mentioned elsewhere.
is a practical book well worth looking at by anyone interested in Scottish
architecture and the everyday buildings in which our ancestors lived. Users
will come away with better understanding of how designs changed over time.
Tracing Your Ancestors Through the Equity Courts: A Guide for Family & Local Historians. By Susan T. Moore. Published by Pen & Sword Family History, 47 Church Street, Barnsley, South Yorkshire S70 2AS, UK www.pen-and-sword.co.uk. £14.99. US Distributor: CasemateIPM 1950 Lawrence Road, Havertown PA 19083. www.casemateipm.com. $26.95. 2017. 211 pp. Illustrations, index. Softcover.
These voluminous records of the equity courts contain a wealth of family details, both in terms of relationships and character. Was your ancestor kind, compassionate, giving or rather cruel, belligerent and miserly? What was their day-to-day life like? The equity court records often reveal the answers to questions like these. They are also valuable for the local historian seeking information on the social networks, land ownership and the economics of a given locality.
The numerous courts of equity include: Chancery; Star Chamber; Requests; Exchequer; Duchy Chamber for Duchy of Lancaster; Palatinate of Durham; Exchequer of Chester; and Welsh Courts of Equity. “The principal difference between the common law courts and the equity courts was that the equity courts were based on what is right morally, whereas the common law courts relied on the law” (p.3). From the researcher’s perspective, the principal difference is that the equity court records are all in one location at The National Archives (except the Welsh courts); and are in English rather than Latin as for criminal records until 1733.
The Court of Chancery is the most voluminous record collection originating in 1377 and running through 1876. It is from this court that the bulk of the examples originate. Lots of cases here refer to the possession or the occupation of land, rather than legal ownership as would be in under common law, because so much land was held in trust or mortgaged. The other equity courts are explained and illustrated to a lessor extent. Furthermore, the book provides additional background on items that will be useful to the researcher, such as paleography, understanding of wills, deeds and legal terms. It also provides a broad overview of the types of documents to be found and where they come in the process, but these are more fully described later.
The second chapter answers the question, “Why look at the courts of equity?” It provides examples of: the type of information to be found in bills and answers, explains relationships in detail, often across multiple generations, tells how and why women and children can be parties to a case, quotes other records such as wills, deeds, leases, and mortgages, and details where and how a family may have lived even in terms of details of the house or land, and finally, details business transactions. The records can also be of value in proving immigrant origins or business ties.
Chapter three starts by examining the paleography of records. and continues by describing what the various types of documents are likely to contain. In this context, it covers records such as: pleadings, bills and answers; interrogatories and depositions; decrees and orders; Chancery masters’ reports; Chancery masters’ exhibitions; masters’ documents; cause books; affidavits; petitions; and account books. The chapter concludes by looking at the key phrases that will help identify specific types of documents.
Chapter four addressing indexes is important as so much has changed and continues to change regarding what is online, in print, or only available through calendars at TNA. There are tables for each of the courts explaining what indexes are available where, and in some cases digital images of the records themselves. The up-to-date tables alone make the edition worth buying, even for researchers who may have an earlier edition.
Throughout these first four chapters, extensive use is made of transcripts and case summaries to highlight the value of the records. Chapter five uses sample cases to go into more depth, illustrating the more common reasons for using the records. , Even, so these samples still only provide a snapshot of the detail that can be found for: loans and debts; probate disputes; marriage settlements and annuities; management of property from afar; merchants and mariners; trades and tradesmen; American connections; field names; and former monastic lands. The final chapter is an interesting though voluminous case study of the Lefroy family and its connections with Jane Austen’s family. The book concludes with a glossary and bibliography.
Chancery records are an underutilized record group which can be very valuable for reconstructing families and their characters. This book provides a clear guide into how to access and use these records. It is thus highly recommended for any English/Welsh researcher and all types of genealogical collections.
LostLives, New Voices: Unlocking the stories of the Scottish Soldiers from the Battle of Dunbar 1650. Christopher Gerrad, Pam Graves, Andrew Millard, Richard Annis and ANwen Caffell. Published by Oxbow Books, The Old Music Hall, Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 IJE, UK www.oxbowbooks.com. £20. And Oxbow Books, 1950 Lawrence Rd, Havertown, PA 19083. www.casemateacademic.com/ oxbow. $35.00. 2018. xvi, 368 pp. Color and B&W Illustrations, index. Softcover. Also available as an eBook.
Though this book has a broad context in the stories of all soldiers from the Battle of Dunbar in 1650, its Appendix A will likely be of most interest to the American researcher seeking Scottish ancestors. This is because no passenger list for the Unity that arrived late in 1650 carrying Dunbar prisoners exists, The appendix is divided into four sections: (1) Definite – men who appear in association with the Saugus Ironworks and are not on the John and Sara list: (2) Probable – men who first appear in records shortly after the likely end of indentures, or who have strong associations with groups of Scots in Oyster River, NH, York, ME, or Block Island, RI, or who are founders of the Scots Charitable Society, and who are not on the John and Sara list; (3) Possible – men with weaker associations, with slightly later appearance in the records, who possibly appear on the John and Sara list or where the team has failed to find evidence suggestive of their status as Scots and/or prisoners; (4) Doubtful – men who have been named as Dunbar prisoners in the past, mostly by George S. Stewart, but for whom no evidence seems to show they arrive in New England other than on the Unity, mostly because they appear on the John and Sarah list or they first appear well after 1660. Entries for each individual in the four alphabetical lists provide surnames (with known spelling variations) and forenames, residences listed by state, date of first known appearance in New England records, years of birth and death based on evidence contemporary with the name, and brief notes justifying the categorization or offering other items of interest, followed by sources.
Chapters 7 and 8 will also interest American researchers. They provide context and describe the experience of the approximately 150 Scottish Dunbar prisoners transported to New England in 1650. The majority were destined to serve five to eight-year indentures working in the iron works at Braintree and Hammersmith and in the northern timberlands on the frontiers of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, though others were sold off to local farmers, merchants and craftsmen. The study shows that prisoners’ lives were very different from their former lives in Scotland. Descriptions illustrate, using both archeological and documentary evidence for personal living and working conditions and industrial context of the time. This information is applicable to anyone living in the area at the time, not just the Scots, though they are used as examples.
To get a stronger sense of the people involved and their lives, mini biographies are provided for James Warren, William Furbusch, Peter Grant, William Cahoon, and William Paul. Appendix B, also provides transcripts of New England wills and inventories for Nyven Agnew, Arsbell Anderson, John Berbeene, Alexander Bow, Alexander Bravender, John Clarke, Alexander Cooper, Patrick Fassett, Peter Grant, George Gray, Robert Junkins, John Maccoon, Robert Mackclafflin, Alister Mackmallen, Alexander Maxwell, Micom McIntire, Henry Merrow, James Moore, Finaly Ross, John Taylor, John Upton, and James Warren. These men, and the other Dunbar prisoners, are tied together through family, marriage, and mutual support networks, each illustrated. The men also have an impact on the naming of the places where they settled throughout New England.
The impetus for this book was an archaeological find. In November 2013 two mass burials were discovered unexpectedly while excavating the foundations of a new café at the Palace Green Library, part of Durham cathedral, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Thirty bodies were excavated, with other bodies left undisturbed, under the walls of the surrounding buildings. The goal was then to identify these men. One option, later confirmed, was that they were some of the thousands of soldiers taken prisoner at the Battle of Dunbar in Scotland in September 1650, marched south to Durham Cathedral and held prisoner. In putting this event in context, the book provides context for the battle and its results.
The book also describes in detail the archaeological dig to unearth the prisoners who died in Durham. It makes fascinating reading in explaining why this was a mass grave rather than an old cemetery and examining old maps and construction sites around the cathedral. The discussion of skeleton science showing which bones survived for which skeletons, identifying their preservation, fragmentation and completeness, whether young or mature adults, their dental health, and skeletal pathology (scars, inflammation, sinusitis, hollows, nodes, etc). For a non-archaeologist reader, this was in places technical, but clear and understandable. The scientific analysis of the teeth and bones provided impressive clues about where in Scotland many grew up, but also showed that a significant number had spent time in continental Europe, all under differing living conditions.
The book continues by describing the battle and then what happened to the survivors, of which the New England soldiers were a very small number, though the only group individually identified by name. Other survivors worked in the coal mines and salt pans in the Northeast of England, others were sent as laborers to drain the Fens, as soldiers to France, along with discussion of other places considered but apparently not acted upon – Crete, Virginia, West Indies – mainly because of political leanings.
The book is heavily footnoted, with an extensive bibliography, providing lots of additional options for further research. Certainly, for anyone with known or possible Scots ancestry in New England this book is a must read, but it is also of value to others wanting to understand life in New England. This book combines archaeology, modern DNA studies, and documentary research, illustrating life during the English Civil War, in the context of European and North Atlantic trade.